Catálogo
Subscripción
ISBN: 9781292095318
*Precio sin IVA: 28,88 €
*Precio con IVA: 34,94 €
Dimensiones:
Páginas: 0


Educational Psychology, 13e (e-Book VS 12m)


By Anita Woolfolk

Descripción:

For Educational Psychology courses

The most current, comprehensive view of educational psychology today

The Thirteenth Edition of Educational Psychology continues to emphasize the educational implications and applications of research on child development, cognitive science, learning, motivation, teaching, and assessment. Theory and practice are considered together, showing how information and ideas drawn from educational psychology research can be applied to solve the everyday problems of teaching. The text reflects the field as it offers unique and crucial knowledge to any who dare to teach, and to all who love to learn.



Contenido:
  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—LEAVING NO STUDENT BEHIND: WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
  • OVERVIEW AND OBJECTIVES
  • LEARNING AND TEACHING TODAY
  • Students Today: Dramatic Diversity and Remarkable Technology
  • Confidence in Every Context
  • High Expectations for Teachers and Students
  • Do Teachers Make a Difference?
  • TEACHER–STUDENT RELATIONSHIPS
  • THE COST OF POOR TEACHING
  • WHAT IS GOOD TEACHING?
  • Inside Three Classrooms
  • A BILINGUAL FIRST GRADE
  • A SUBURBAN FIFTH GRADE
  • AN INCLUSIVE CLASS
  • SO WHAT IS GOOD TEACHING
  • MODELS OF GOOD TEACHING
  • MEASURES OF EFFECTIVE TEACHING
  • Beginning Teachers
  • THE ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
  • In the Beginning: Linking Educational Psychology and Teaching
  • Educational Psychology Today
  • Is It Just Common Sense?
  • HELPING STUDENTS
  • ANSWER BASED ON RESEARCH
  • SKIPPING GRADES
  • ANSWER BASED ON RESEARCH
  • STUDENTS IN CONTROL
  • ANSWER BASED ON RESEARCH
  • OBVIOUS ANSWERS?
  • Using Research to Understand and Improve Learning
  • CORRELATION STUDIES
  • EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES
  • SINGLE-SUBJECT EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS
  • CLINICAL INTERVIEWS AND CASE STUDIES
  • ETHNOGRAPHY
  • THE ROLE OF TIME IN RESEARCH
  • QUANTITATIVE VERSUS QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
  • POINT/COUNTERPOINT: What Kind of Research Should Guide Education?
  • TEACHERS AS RESEARCHERS
  • Theories for Teaching
  • Supporting Student Learning
  • SUMMARY
  • KEY TERMS
  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—LEAVING NO STUDENT BEHIND: WHAT WOULD THEY DO?
  • PART I: STUDENTS

    CHAPTER 2: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—SYMBOLS AND CYMBALS: WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
  • OVERVIEW AND OBJECTIVES
  • A DEFINITION OF DEVELOPMENT
  • Three Questions Across the Theories
  • WHAT IS THE SOURCE OF DEVELOPMENT? NATURE VERSUS NURTURE
  • WHAT IS THE SHAPE OF DEVELOPMENT? CONTINUITY VERSUS DISCONTINUITY
  • TIMING: IS IT TOO LATE? CRITICAL VERSUS SENSITIVE PERIODS
  • BEWARE OF EITHER/OR
  • General Principles of Development
  • THE BRAIN AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • The Developing Brain: Neurons
  • The Developing Brain: Cerebral Cortex
  • Adolescent Development and the Brain
  • Putting It All Together: How the Brain Works
  • Neuroscience, Learning, and Teaching
  • POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Brain-Based Education
  • INSTRUCTION AND BRAIN DEVELOPMENT
  • THE BRAIN AND LEARNING TO READ
  • EMOTIONS, LEARNING, AND THE BRAIN
  • Lessons for Teachers: General Principles
  • PIAGET’S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • Influences on Development
  • Basic Tendencies in Thinking
  • ORGANIZATION
  • ADAPTATION
  • EQUILIBRATION
  • Four Stages of Cognitive Development
  • INFANCY: THE SENSORIMOTOR STAGE
  • EARLY CHILDHOOD TO THE EARLY ELEMENTARY YEARS: THE PREOPERATIONAL STAGE
  • GUIDELINES: Family and Community Partnerships—Helping Families Care for Preoperational Chil-dren
  • LATER ELEMENTARY TO THE MIDDLE SCHOOL YEARS: THE CON-CRETE-OPERATIONAL STAGE
  • HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE: FORMAL OPERATIONS
  • GUIDELINES: Teaching the Concrete-Operational Child
  • DO WE ALL REACH THE FOURTH STAGE?
  • Information Processing, Neo-Piagetian, and Neuroscience Views of Cognitive Development
  • GUIDELINES: Helping Students to Use Formal Operations
  • Some Limitations of Piaget’s Theory
  • THE TROUBLE WITH STAGES
  • UNDERESTIMATING CHILDREN’S ABILITIES
  • COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT AND CULTURE
  • VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
  • The Social Sources of Individual Thinking
  • Cultural Tools and Cognitive Development
  • TECHNICAL TOOLS IN A DIGITAL AGE
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL TOOLS
  • The Role of Language and Private Speech
  • PRIVATE SPEECH: VYGOTSKY’S AND PIAGET’S VIEWS COMPARED
  • The Zone of Proximal Development
  • PRIVATE SPEECH AND THE ZONE
  • THE ROLE OF LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT
  • Limitations of Vygotsky’s Theory
  • IMPLICATIONS OF PIAGET’S AND VYGOTSKY’S THEORIES FOR TEACHERS
  • Piaget: What Can We Learn?
  • UNDERSTANDING AND BUILDING ON STUDENTS’ THINKING
  • ACTIVITY AND CONSTRUCTING KNOWLEDGE
  • Vygotsky: What Can We Learn?
  • THE ROLE OF ADULTS AND PEERS
  • ASSISTED LEARNING
  • An Example Curriculum: Tools of the Mind
  • Reaching Every Student: Teaching in the “Magic Middle”
  • GUIDELINES: Applying Vygotsky’s Ideas in Teaching
  • Cognitive Development: Lessons for Teachers
  • SUMMARY
  • KEY TERMS
  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—SYMBOLS AND CYMBALS: WHAT WOULD THEY DO?
  • CHAPTER 3: THE SELF, SOCIAL, AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT

  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—MEAN GIRLS: WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
  • OVERVIEW AND OBJECTIVES
  • PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Physical and Motor Development
  • YOUNG CHILDREN
  • ELEMENTARY SCHOOL YEARS
  • THE ADOLESCENT YEARS
  • EARLY AND LATER MATURING
  • GUIDELINES: Dealing with Physical Differences in the Classroom
  • Play, Recess, and Physical Activity
  • CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN PLAY
  • EXERCISE AND RECESS
  • PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES
  • Challenges in Physical Development
  • OBESITY
  • EATING DISORDERS
  • GUIDELINES: Supporting Positive Body Images in Adolescents
  • BRONFENBRENNER: THE SOCIAL CONTEXT FOR DEVELOPMENT
  • The Importance of Context and the Bioecological Model
  • Families
  • FAMILY STRUCTURE
  • PARENTING STYLES
  • CULTURE AND PARENTING
  • ATTACHMENT
  • GUIDELINES: Family and Community Partnerships
  • DIVORCE
  • GUIDELINES: Helping Children of Divorce
  • Peers
  • CLIQUES
  • CROWDS
  • PEER CULTURES
  • FRIENDSHIPS
  • POPULARITY
  • CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF REJECTION
  • AGGRESSION
  • RELATIONAL AGGRESSION
  • MEDIA, MODELING, AND AGGRESSION
  • VIDEO GAMES AND AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR
  • Reaching Every Student: Teacher Support
  • GUIDELINES: Dealing with Aggression and Encouraging Cooperation
  • ACADEMIC AND PERSONAL CARING
  • Teachers and Child Abuse
  • Society and Media
  • IDENTITY AND SELF-CONCEPT
  • Erikson: Stages of Psychosocial Development
  • THE PRESCHOOL YEARS: TRUST, AUTONOMY, AND INITIATIVE
  • THE ELEMENTARY AND MIDDLE SCHOOL YEARS: INDUSTRY VERSUS INFERIORITY
  • ADOLESCENCE: THE SEARCH FOR IDENTITY
  • GUIDELINES: Encouraging Initiative and Industry
  • IDENTITY AND TECHNOLOGY
  • GUIDELINES: Supporting Identity Formation
  • BEYOND THE SCHOOL YEARS
  • Racial-Ethnic Identity
  • ETHNIC IDENTITIES: OUTCOME AND PROCESS
  • RACIAL IDENTITY: OUTCOME AND PROCESS
  • RACIAL AND ETHNIC PRIDE
  • Self-Concept
  • THE STRUCTURE OF SELF-CONCEPT
  • HOW SELF-CONCEPT DEVELOPS
  • SELF-CONCEPT AND ACHIEVEMENT
  • Sex Differences in Self-Concept of Academic Competence
  • Self-Esteem
  • POINT/COUNTERPOINT: What Should Schools Do to Encourage Students’ Self-Esteem?
  • UNDERSTANDING OTHERS AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Theory of Mind and Intention
  • Moral Development
  • KOHLBERG’S THEORIES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT
  • CRITICISMS OF KOHLBERG’S THEORY
  • Moral Judgments, Social Conventions, and Personal Choices
  • MORAL VERSUS CONVENTIONAL DOMAINS
  • IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHERS
  • Diversity in Moral Reasoning
  • Beyond Reasoning: Haidt’s Social Intuitionist Model of Moral Psychology
  • Moral Behavior and the Example of Cheating
  • WHO CHEATS?
  • DEALING WITH CHEATING
  • PERSONAL/SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT: LESSONS FOR TEACHERS
  • SUMMARY
  • KEY TERMS
  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—MEAN GIRLS: WHAT WOULD THEY DO?
  • CHAPTER 4: LEARNER DIFFERENCES AND LEARNING NEEDS

  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—INCLUDING EVERY STUDENT: WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
  • OVERVIEW AND OBJECTIVES
  • INTELLIGENCE
  • Language and Labels
  • DISABILITIES AND HANDICAPS
  • PERSON-FIRST LANGUAGE
  • POSSIBLE BIASES IN THE APPLICATION OF LABELS
  • What Does Intelligence Mean?
  • INTELLIGENCE: ONE ABILITY OR MANY?
  • Multiple Intelligences
  • WHAT ARE THESE INTELLIGENCES
  • CRITICS OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY
  • GARDNER RESPONDS
  • MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES GO TO SCHOOL
  • Multiple Intelligences: Lessons for Teachers
  • Intelligence as a Process
  • Measuring Intelligence
  • BINET’S DILEMMA
  • WHAT DOES AN IQ SCORE MEAN?
  • GROUP VERSUS INDIVIDUAL IQ TESTS
  • THE FLYNN EFFECT: ARE WE GETTING SMARTER?
  • GUIDELINES: Interpreting IQ Scores
  • INTELLIGENCE AND ACHIEVEMENT
  • Gender Differences in Intelligence
  • HEREDITY OR ENVIRONMENT?
  • BEING SMART ABOUT IQ TESTS
  • LEARNING AND THINKING STYLES
  • Learning Styles/Preferences
  • CAUTIONS ABOUT LEARNING STYLES
  • THE VALUE OF CONSIDERING LEARNING STYLES
  • Beyond Either/Or
  • INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND THE LAW
  • IDEA
  • LEAST RESTRICTIVE ENVIRONMENT
  • INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PROGRAM
  • THE RIGHTS OF STUDENTS AND FAMILIES
  • Section 504 Protections
  • GUIDELINES: Family and Community Partnerships—Productive Conferences
  • STUDENTS WITH LEARNING CHALLENGES
  • Neuroscience and Learning Challenges
  • Students with Learning Disabilities
  • STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS
  • TEACHING STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES
  • Students with Hyperactivity and Attention Disorders
  • DEFINITIONS
  • TREATING ADHD WITH DRUGS
  • ALTERNATIVES/ADDITIONS TO DRUG TREATMENTS
  • POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Pills or Skills for Children with ADHD?
  • Lessons for Teachers: Learning Disabilities and ADHD
  • Students with Communication Disorders
  • SPEECH DISORDERS
  • LANGUAGE DISORDERS
  • Students with Emotional or Behavioral Difficulties
  • SUICIDE
  • GUIDELINES: Disciplining Students with Emotional Problems
  • DRUG ABUSE
  • PREVENTION
  • Students with Intellectual Disabilities
  • GUIDELINES: Teaching Students with Intellectual Disabilities
  • Students with Health and Sensory Impairments
  • CEREBRAL PALSY AND MULTIPLE DISABILITIES
  • SEIZURE DISORDERS (EPILEPSY)
  • OTHER SERIOUS HEALTH CONCERNS: ASTHMA, HIV/AIDS, AND DIABETES
  • STUDENTS WITH VISION IMPAIRMENTS
  • STUDENTS WHO ARE DEAF
  • Autism Spectrum Disorders and Asperger Syndrome
  • INTERVENTIONS
  • Response to Intervention
  • STUDENTS WHO ARE GIFTED AND TALENTED
  • Who Are These Students?
  • WHAT IS THE ORIGIN OF THESE GIFTS?
  • WHAT PROBLEMS DO STUDENTS WHO ARE GIFTED FACE?
  • Identifying Students Who Are Gifted and Talented
  • RECOGNIZING GIFTS AND TALENTS
  • Teaching Students with Gifts and Talents
  • ACCELERATION
  • METHODS AND STRATEGIES
  • SUMMARY
  • KEY TERMS
  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—INCLUDING EVERY STUDENT: WHAT WOULD THEY DO?
  • CHAPTER 5: LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT, LANGUAGE DIVERSITY, AND IMMIGRANT EDUCATION

  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—CULTURES CLASH IN THE CLASSROOM: WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
  • OVERVIEW AND OBJECTIVES
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGE
  • What Develops? Language and Cultural Differences
  • THE PUZZLE OF LANGUAGE
  • When and How Does Language Develop?
  • SOUNDS AND PRONUNCIATION
  • VOCABULARY AND MEANING
  • GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX
  • PRAGMATICS: USING LANGUAGE IN SOCIAL SITUATIONS
  • METALINGUISTIC AWARENESS
  • Emergent Literacy
  • INSIDE-OUT AND OUTSIDE-IN SKILLS
  • BUILDING A FOUNDATION
  • WHEN THERE ARE PERSISTENT PROBLEMS
  • Emergent Literacy and Language Diversity
  • LANGUAGES AND EMERGENT LITERACY
  • GUIDELINES: Supporting Language and Promoting Literacy
  • BILINGUAL EMERGENT LITERACY
  • DIVERSITY IN LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
  • Dual-Language Development
  • SECOND-LANGUAGE LEARNING
  • BENEFITS OF BILINGUALISM
  • LANGUAGE LOSS
  • Signed Languages
  • What Is Involved in Being Bilingual?
  • Contextualized and Academic Language
  • GUIDELINES: Promoting Language Learning
  • DIALECT DIFFERENCES IN THE CLASSROOM
  • Dialects
  • DIALECTS AND PRONUNCIATION
  • DIALECTS AND TEACHING
  • Genderlects
  • TEACHING IMMIGRANT STUDENTS
  • Immigrants and Refugees
  • Classrooms Today
  • FOUR STUDENT PROFILES
  • Generation 1.5: Students in Two Worlds
  • TEACHING STUDENTS WHO ARE ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS
  • Two Approaches to English Language Learning
  • RESEARCH ON BILINGUAL EDUCATION
  • BILINGUALISM FOR ALL: TWO-WAY IMMERSION
  • POINT/COUNTERPOINT: What Is the Best Way to Teach Students Who Are ELLs?
  • Sheltered Instruction
  • Affective and Emotional/Social Considerations
  • GUIDELINES: Providing Emotional Support and Increasing Self-Esteem for Students Who Are ELLs
  • Working with Families: Using the Tools of the Culture
  • FUNDS OF KNOWLEDGE AND WELCOME CENTERS
  • STUDENT-LED CONFERENCES
  • GUIDELINES: Family and Community Partnerships
  • SPECIAL CHALLENGES: STUDENTS WHO ARE ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS WITH DISABILITIES AND SPECIAL GIFTS
  • Students Who Are English Language Learners with Disabilities
  • Reaching Every Student: Recognizing Giftedness in Bilingual Students
  • SUMMARY
  • KEY TERMS
  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—CULTURES CLASH IN THE CLASSROOM: WHAT WOULD THEY DO?
  • CHAPTER 6: CULTURE AND DIVERSITY

  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—WHITE GIRLS CLUB: WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
  • OVERVIEW AND OBJECTIVES
  • TODAY’S DIVERSE CLASSROOMS
  • American Cultural Diversity
  • Meet Four More Students
  • Cautions: Interpreting Cultural Differences
  • CULTURAL CONFLICTS AND COMPATIBILITIES
  • DANGERS IN STEREOTYPING
  • ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CLASS DIFFERENCES
  • Social Class and Socioeconomic Status
  • Extreme Poverty: Homeless and Highly Mobile Students
  • Poverty and School Achievement
  • HEALTH, ENVIRONMENT, AND STRESS
  • LOW EXPECTATIONS—LOW ACADEMIC SELF-CONCEPT
  • PEER INFLUENCES AND RESISTANCE CULTURES
  • HOME ENVIRONMENT AND RESOURCES
  • SUMMER SETBACKS
  • TRACKING: POOR TEACHING
  • POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Is Tracking an Effective Strategy?
  • GUIDELINES: Teaching Students Who Live in Poverty
  • ETHNICITY AND RACE IN TEACHING AND LEARNING
  • Terms: Ethnicity and Race
  • Ethnic and Racial Differences in School Achievement
  • The Legacy of Discrimination
  • WHAT IS PREJUDICE?
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF PREJUDICE
  • CONTINUING DISCRIMINATION
  • Stereotype Threat
  • WHO IS AFFECTED BY STEREOTYPE THREAT?
  • SHORT-TERM EFFECTS: TEST PERFORMANCE
  • LONG-TERM EFFECTS: DISIDENTIFICATION
  • COMBATING STEREOTYPE THREAT
  • GENDER IN TEACHING AND LEARNING
  • Sex and Gender
  • SEXUAL ORIENTATION
  • Gender Roles
  • Gender Bias in Curriculum Materials
  • Gender Bias in Teaching
  • GUIDELINES: Avoiding Gender Bias in Teaching
  • MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION: CREATING CULTURALLY COMPATIBLE CLASSROOMS
  • Culturally Relevant Pedagogy
  • Fostering Resilience
  • RESILIENT STUDENTS
  • RESILIENT CLASSROOMS
  • SELF-AGENCY STRAND
  • RELATIONSHIP STRAND
  • GUIDELINES: Family and Community Partnerships
  • Diversity in Learning
  • SOCIAL ORGANIZATION
  • CULTURAL VALUES AND LEARNING PREFERENCES
  • CAUTIONS (AGAIN) ABOUT LEARNING STYLES RESEARCH
  • SOCIOLINGUISTICS
  • SOURCES OF MISUNDERSTANDINGS
  • Lessons for Teachers: Teaching Every Student
  • KNOW YOUR STUDENTS
  • RESPECT YOUR STUDENTS
  • TEACH YOUR STUDENTS
  • GUIDELINES: Culturally Relevant Teaching
  • SUMMARY
  • KEY TERMS
  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—WHITE GIRLS CLUB: WHAT WOULD THEY DO?
  • PART II: LEARNING AND MOTIVATION

    CHAPTER 7: BEHAVIORAL VIEWS OF LEARNING

  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—SICK OF CLASS: WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
  • OVERVIEW AND OBJECTIVES
  • UNDERSTANDING LEARNING
  • Neuroscience of Behavioral Learning
  • Learning Is Not Always What It Seems
  • EARLY EXPLANATIONS OF LEARNING: CONTIGUITY AND CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
  • GUIDELINES: Applying Classical Conditioning
  • OPERANT CONDITIONING: TRYING NEW RESPONSES
  • Types of Consequences
  • REINFORCEMENT
  • PUNISHMENT
  • Reinforcement Schedules
  • EXTINCTION
  • Antecedents and Behavior Change
  • EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION DELIVERY
  • CUEING
  • PROMPTING
  • PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER TO APPLY OPERANT CONDITIONING: APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS
  • Methods for Encouraging Behaviors
  • REINFORCING WITH TEACHER ATTENTION
  • SELECTING REINFORCERS: THE PREMACK PRINCIPLE
  • GUIDELINES: Applying Operant Conditioning: Using Praise Appropriately
  • SHAPING
  • GUIDELINES: APPLYING OPERANT CONDITIONING: ENCOURAGING POSITIVE BEHAVIORS
  • POSITIVE PRACTICE
  • Contingency Contracts, Token Reinforcement, and Group Consequences
  • CONTINGENCY CONTRACTS
  • TOKEN REINFORCEMENT SYSTEMS
  • GROUP CONSEQUENCES
  • Handling Undesirable Behavior
  • NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT
  • REPRIMANDS
  • RESPONSE COST
  • SOCIAL ISOLATION
  • SOME CAUTIONS ABOUT PUNISHMENT
  • Reaching Every Student: Severe Behavior Problems
  • GUIDELINES: Applying Operant Conditioning: Using Punishment
  • CONTEMPORARY APPLICATIONS: FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT, POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORTS, AND SELF-MA
  • Discovering the “Why”: Functional Behavioral Assessments
  • Positive Behavior Supports
  • Self-Management
  • GOAL SETTING
  • MONITORING AND EVALUATING PROGRESS
  • SELF-REINFORCEMENT
  • GUIDELINES: Family and Community Partnerships—Applying Operant Conditioning: Student Self-Manageme
  • CHALLENGES, CAUTIONS, AND CRITICISMS
  • Beyond Behaviorism: Bandura’s Challenge and Observational Learning
  • ENACTIVE AND OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING
  • LEARNING AND PERFORMANCE
  • Criticisms of Behavioral Methods
  • POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Should Students Be Rewarded for Learning?
  • Ethical Issues
  • GOALS
  • STRATEGIES
  • Behavioral Approaches: Lessons for Teachers
  • SUMMARY
  • KEY TERMS
  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—SICK OF CLASS: WHAT WOULD THEY DO?
  • CHAPTER 8: COGNITIVE VIEWS OF LEARNING

  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—REMEMBERING THE BASICS: WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
  • OVERVIEW AND OBJECTIVES
  • ELEMENTS OF THE COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE
  • Comparing Cognitive and Behavioral Views
  • VIEWS OF LEARNING
  • GOALS
  • The Brain and Cognitive Learning
  • The Importance of Knowledge in Cognition
  • GENERAL AND SPECIFIC KNOWLEDGE
  • COGNITIVE VIEWS OF MEMORY
  • Sensory Memory
  • CAPACITY, DURATION, AND CONTENTS OF SENSORY MEMORY
  • PERCEPTION
  • THE ROLE OF ATTENTION
  • ATTENTION AND MULTITASKING
  • ATTENTION AND TEACHING
  • GUIDELINES: Gaining and Maintaining Attention
  • Working Memory
  • THE CENTRAL EXECUTIVE
  • THE PHONOLOGICAL LOOP
  • THE VISUOSPATIAL SKETCHPAD
  • THE EPISODIC BUFFER
  • THE DURATION AND CONTENTS OF WORKING MEMORY
  • Cognitive Load and Retaining Information
  • THREE KINDS OF COGNITIVE LOAD
  • RETAINING INFORMATION IN WORKING MEMORY
  • LEVELS OF PROCESSING THEORY
  • FORGETTING
  • Individual Differences in Working Memory
  • DEVELOPMENTAL DIFFERENCES
  • INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
  • LONG-TERM MEMORY
  • Capacity, Duration, and Contents of Long-Term Memory
  • CONTENTS: DECLARATIVE, PROCEDURAL, AND SELF-REGULATORY KNOWLEDGE
  • Explicit Memories: Semantic and Episodic
  • PROPOSITIONS AND PROPOSITIONAL NETWORKS
  • IMAGES
  • TWO ARE BETTER THAN ONE: WORDS AND IMAGES
  • CONCEPTS
  • PROTOTYPES, EXEMPLARS, AND THEORY-BASED CATEGORIES
  • SCHEMAS
  • EPISODIC MEMORY
  • Implicit Memories
  • Retrieving Information in Long-Term Memory
  • SPREADING ACTIVATION
  • RECONSTRUCTION
  • FORGETTING AND LONG-TERM MEMORY
  • Individual Differences in Long-Term Memory
  • TEACHING FOR DEEP, LONG-LASTING KNOWLEDGE: BASIC PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS
  • Constructing Declarative Knowledge: Making Meaningful Connections
  • ELABORATION, ORGANIZATION, IMAGERY, AND CONTEXT
  • GUIDELINES: Family and Community Partnerships—Organizing Learning
  • IMAGERY
  • Reaching Every Student: Make it Meaningful
  • MNEMONICS
  • ROTE MEMORIZATION
  • Development of Procedural Knowledge
  • POINT/COUNTERPOINT: What’s Wrong with Memorizing?
  • AUTOMATED BASIC SKILLS
  • DOMAIN-SPECIFIC STRATEGIES
  • GUIDELINES: Helping Students Understand and Remember
  • SUMMARY
  • KEY TERMS
  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—REMEMBERING THE BASICS: WHAT WOULD THEY DO?
  • CHAPTER 9: COMPLEX COGNITIVE PROCESSES

  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—UNCRITICAL THINKING: WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
  • OVERVIEW AND OBJECTIVES
  • METACOGNITION
  • Metacognitive Knowledge and Regulation
  • Individual Differences in Metacognition
  • Lessons for Teachers: Developing Metacognition
  • METACOGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT FOR YOUNGER STUDENTS
  • METACOGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT FOR SECONDARY AND COLLEGE STUDENTS (LIKE YOU)
  • LEARNING STRATEGIES
  • Being Strategic About Learning
  • DECIDING WHAT IS IMPORTANT
  • SUMMARIES
  • UNDERLINING AND HIGHLIGHTING
  • TAKING NOTES
  • Visual Tools for Organizing
  • Reading Strategies
  • Applying Learning Strategies
  • APPROPRIATE TASKS
  • VALUING LEARNING
  • EFFORT AND EFFICACY
  • Reaching Every Student: Learning Strategies for Struggling Students
  • GUIDELINES: Becoming an Expert Student
  • PROBLEM SOLVING
  • Identifying: Problem Finding
  • Defining Goals and Representing the Problem
  • FOCUSING ATTENTION ON WHAT IS RELEVANT
  • UNDERSTANDING THE WORDS
  • UNDERSTANDING THE WHOLE PROBLEM
  • TRANSLATION AND SCHEMA TRAINING: DIRECT INSTRUCTION IN SCHEMAS
  • TRANSLATION AND SCHEMA TRAINING: WORKED EXAMPLES
  • THE RESULTS OF PROBLEM REPRESENTATION
  • Searching for Possible Solution Strategies
  • ALGORITHMS
  • HEURISTICS
  • Anticipating, Acting, and Looking Back
  • Factors That Hinder Problem Solving
  • SOME PROBLEMS WITH HEURISTICS
  • GUIDELINES: Applying Problem Solving
  • Expert Knowledge and Problem Solving
  • KNOWING WHAT IS IMPORTANT
  • MEMORY FOR PATTERNS AND ORGANIZATION
  • PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE
  • PLANNING AND MONITORING
  • CREATIVITY: WHAT IT IS AND WHY IT MATTERS
  • Assessing Creativity
  • OK, But So What: Why Does Creativity Matter?
  • What Are the Sources of Creativity?
  • CREATIVITY AND COGNITION
  • CREATIVITY AND DIVERSITY
  • Creativity in the Classroom
  • The Big C: Revolutionary Innovation
  • GUIDELINES: Applying and Encouraging Creativity
  • CRITICAL THINKING AND ARGUMENTATION
  • One Model of Critical Thinking: Paul and Elder
  • Applying Critical Thinking in Specific Subjects
  • Argumentation
  • POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Should Schools Teach Critical Thinking and Problem Solving?
  • TEACHING FOR TRANSFER
  • The Many Views of Transfer
  • Teaching for Positive Transfer
  • WHAT IS WORTH LEARNING?
  • HOW CAN TEACHERS HELP?
  • STAGES OF TRANSFER FOR STRATEGIES
  • GUIDELINES: Family and Community Partnerships—Promoting Transfer
  • SUMMARY
  • KEY TERMS
  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—UNCRITICAL THINKING: WHAT WOULD THEY DO?
  • CHAPTER 10: THE LEARNING SCIENCES AND CONSTRUCTIVISM

  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—LEARNING TO COOPERATE: WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
  • OVERVIEW AND OBJECTIVES
  • THE LEARNING SCIENCES
  • What Are the Learning Sciences?
  • Basic Assumptions of the Learning Sciences
  • Embodied Cognition
  • COGNITIVE AND SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM
  • Constructivist Views of Learning
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL/INDIVIDUAL/COGNITIVE CONSTRUCTIVISM
  • VYGOTSKY’S SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM
  • CONSTRUCTIONISM
  • How Is Knowledge Constructed?
  • Knowledge: Situated or General?
  • Common Elements of Constructivist Student-Centered Teaching
  • COMPLEX LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS AND AUTHENTIC TASKS
  • SOCIAL NEGOTIATION
  • MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVES AND REPRESENTATIONS OF CONTENT
  • UNDERSTANDING THE KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTION PROCESS
  • STUDENT OWNERSHIP OF LEARNING
  • APPLYING CONSTRUCTIVIST PERSPECTIVES
  • Inquiry and Problem-Based Learning
  • EXAMPLES OF INQUIRY
  • PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING
  • RESEARCH ON INQUIRY AND PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING
  • Cognitive Apprenticeships and Reciprocal Teaching
  • POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Are Inquiry and Problem-Based Learning Effective Teaching Approaches?
  • COGNITIVE APPRENTICESHIPS IN READING: RECIPROCAL TEACHING
  • APPLYING RECIPROCAL TEACHING
  • Collaboration and Cooperation
  • COLLABORATION, GROUP WORK, AND COOPERATIVE LEARNING
  • BEYOND GROUPS TO COOPERATION
  • WHAT CAN GO WRONG: MISUSES OF GROUP LEARNING
  • Tasks for Cooperative Learning
  • HIGHLY STRUCTURED, REVIEW, AND SKILL-BUILDING TASKS
  • ILL-STRUCTURED, CONCEPTUAL, AND PROBLEM-SOLVING TASKS
  • SOCIAL SKILLS AND COMMUNICATION TASKS
  • Preparing Students for Cooperative Learning
  • SETTING UP COOPERATIVE GROUPS
  • GIVING AND RECEIVING EXPLANATIONS
  • ASSIGNING ROLES
  • Designs for Cooperation
  • RECIPROCAL QUESTIONING
  • JIGSAW
  • CONSTRUCTIVE/STRUCTURED CONTROVERSIES
  • Reaching Every Student: Using Cooperative Learning Wisely
  • GUIDELINES: Using Cooperative Learning
  • Dilemmas of Constructivist Practice
  • SERVICE LEARNING
  • GUIDELINES: Family and Community Partnerships—Service Learning
  • LEARNING IN A DIGITAL WORLD
  • Technology and Learning
  • TECHNOLOGY-RICH ENVIRONMENTS
  • VIRTUAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
  • PERSONAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
  • IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
  • GAMES
  • Developmentally Appropriate Computer Activities for Young Children
  • Computers and Older Students
  • COMPUTATIONAL THINKING AND CODING
  • GUIDELINES: Using Computers
  • MEDIA/DIGITAL LITERACY
  • GUIDELINES: Supporting the Development of Media Literacy
  • SUMMARY
  • KEY TERMS
  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—LEARNING TO COOPERATE: WHAT WOULD THEY DO?
  • CHAPTER 11: SOCIAL COGNITIVE VIEWS OF LEARNING AND MOTIVATION

  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—FAILURE TO SELF-REGULATE: WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
  • OVERVIEW AND OBJECTIVES
  • SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY
  • A Self-Directed Life: Albert Bandura
  • Beyond Behaviorism
  • Triarchic Reciprocal Causality
  • MODELING: LEARNING BY OBSERVING OTHERS
  • Elements of Observational Learning
  • ATTENTION
  • RETENTION
  • PRODUCTION
  • MOTIVATION AND REINFORCEMENT
  • Observational Learning in Teaching
  • DIRECTING ATTENTION
  • FINE TUNING ALREADY-LEARNED BEHAVIORS
  • STRENGTHENING OR WEAKENING INHIBITIONS
  • TEACHING NEW BEHAVIORS
  • AROUSING EMOTION
  • GUIDELINES: Using Observational Learning
  • SELF-EFFICACY AND AGENCY
  • Self-Efficacy, Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem
  • Sources of Self-Efficacy
  • Self-Efficacy in Learning and Teaching
  • GUIDELINES: Encouraging Self-Efficacy
  • Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy
  • SELF-REGULATED LEARNING
  • POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Are High Levels of Teacher Efficacy Beneficial?
  • What Influences Self-Regulation?
  • KNOWLEDGE
  • MOTIVATION
  • VOLITION
  • DEVELOPMENT OF SELF-REGULATION
  • Models of Self-Regulated Learning and Agency
  • An Individual Example of Self-Regulated Learning
  • Two Classrooms
  • WRITING
  • MATH PROBLEM SOLVING
  • Technology and Self-Regulation
  • Reaching Every Student: Families and Self-Regulation
  • Another Approach to Self-Regulation: Cognitive Behavior Modification
  • GUIDELINES: Family and Community Partnerships
  • Emotional Self-Regulation
  • GUIDELINES: Encouraging Emotional Self-Regulation
  • TEACHING TOWARD SELF-EFFICACY AND SELF-REGULATED LEARNING
  • Complex Tasks
  • Control
  • Self-Evaluation
  • Collaboration
  • BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER: THEORIES OF LEARNING
  • SUMMARY
  • KEY TERMS
  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—FAILURE TO SELF-REGULATE: WHAT WOULD THEY DO?
  • CHAPTER 12: MOTIVATION IN LEARNING AND TEACHING

  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—MOTIVATING STUDENTS WHEN RESOURCES ARE THIN: WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
  • OVERVIEW AND OBJECTIVES
  • WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
  • Meeting Some Students
  • Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
  • Five General Approaches to Motivation
  • BEHAVIORAL APPROACHES TO MOTIVATION
  • HUMANISTIC APPROACHES TO MOTIVATION
  • COGNITIVE APPROACHES TO MOTIVATION
  • SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORIES
  • SOCIOCULTURAL CONCEPTIONS OF MOTIVATION
  • NEEDS
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • Self-Determination: Need for Competence, Autonomy, and Relatedness
  • SELF-DETERMINATION IN THE CLASSROOM
  • INFORMATION AND CONTROL
  • GUIDELINES: Supporting Self-Determination and Autonomy
  • THE NEED FOR RELATEDNESS
  • Needs: Lessons for Teachers
  • GOAL ORIENTATIONS
  • Types of Goals and Goal Orientations
  • FOUR ACHIEVEMENT GOAL ORIENTATIONS IN SCHOOL
  • WAIT—ARE PERFORMANCE GOALS ALWAYS BAD?
  • BEYOND MASTERY AND PERFORMANCE
  • GOALS IN SOCIAL CONTEXT
  • Feedback, Goal Framing, and Goal Acceptance
  • Goals: Lessons for Teachers
  • BELIEFS AND SELF-PERCEPTIONS
  • Beliefs About Knowing: Epistemological Beliefs
  • Beliefs About Ability
  • Beliefs About Causes and Control: Attribution Theory
  • ATTRIBUTIONS IN THE CLASSROOM
  • TEACHER ACTIONS AND STUDENT ATTRIBUTIONS
  • Beliefs About Self-Worth
  • LEARNED HELPLESSNESS
  • SELF-WORTH
  • GUIDELINES: Encouraging Self-Worth
  • Beliefs and Attributions: Lessons for Teachers
  • INTERESTS, CURIOSITY, EMOTIONS, AND ANXIETY
  • Tapping Interests
  • CATCHING AND HOLDING INTERESTS
  • POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Does Making Learning Fun Make for Good Learning?
  • Curiosity: Novelty and Complexity
  • Flow
  • Emotions and Anxiety
  • NEUROSCIENCE AND EMOTION
  • GUIDELINES: Building on Students’ Interests and Curiosity
  • ACHIEVEMENT EMOTIONS
  • AROUSAL AND ANXIETY
  • ANXIETY IN THE CLASSROOM
  • HOW DOES ANXIETY INTERFERE WITH ACHIEVEMENT?
  • Reaching Every Student: Coping with Anxiety
  • GUIDELINES: Coping with Anxiety
  • Curiosity, Interests, and Emotions: Lessons for Teachers
  • MOTIVATION TO LEARN IN SCHOOL: ON TARGET
  • Tasks for Learning
  • TASK VALUE
  • BEYOND TASK VALUE TO GENUINE APPRECIATION
  • AUTHENTIC TASKS
  • Supporting Autonomy and Recognizing Accomplishment
  • SUPPORTING CHOICES
  • RECOGNIZING ACCOMPLISHMENT
  • Grouping, Evaluation, and Time
  • GROUPING AND GOAL STRUCTURES
  • EVALUATION
  • TIME
  • PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
  • Diversity in Motivation
  • Lessons for Teachers: Strategies to Encourage Motivation
  • CAN I DO IT? BUILDING CONFIDENCE AND POSITIVE EXPECTATIONS
  • DO I WANT TO DO IT? SEEING THE VALUE OF LEARNING
  • WHAT DO I NEED TO DO TO SUCCEED? STAYING FOCUSED ON THE TASK
  • DO I BELONG IN THIS CLASSROOM?
  • GUIDELINES: Motivation to Learn: Family and Community Partnerships
  • SUMMARY
  • KEY TERMS
  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—MOTIVATING STUDENTS WHEN RESOURCES ARE THIN: WHAT WOULD THEY DO?
  • PART III: TEACHING AND ASSESSING

    CHAPTER 13: CREATING LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—BULLIES AND VICTIMS: WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
  • OVERVIEW AND OBJECTIVES
  • THE WHAT AND WHY OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
  • The Basic Task: Gain Their Cooperation
  • The Goals of Classroom Management
  • ACCESS TO LEARNING
  • MORE TIME FOR LEARNING
  • MANAGEMENT FOR SELF-MANAGEMENT
  • CREATING A POSITIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
  • Some Research Results
  • Routines and Rules Required
  • ROUTINES AND PROCEDURES
  • RULES
  • RULES FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
  • GUIDELINES: Establishing Class Routines
  • RULES FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL
  • CONSEQUENCES
  • WHO SETS THE RULES AND CONSEQUENCES
  • Planning Spaces for Learning
  • PERSONAL TERRITORIES
  • INTEREST AREAS
  • GUIDELINES: Designing Learning Spaces
  • Getting Started: The First Weeks of Class
  • EFFECTIVE MANAGERS FOR ELEMENTARY STUDENTS
  • EFFECTIVE MANAGERS FOR SECONDARY STUDENTS
  • MAINTAINING A GOOD ENVIRONMENT FOR LEARNING
  • Encouraging Engagement
  • GUIDELINES: Keeping Students Engaged
  • Prevention Is the Best Medicine
  • WITHITNESS
  • OVERLAPPING AND GROUP FOCUS
  • MOVEMENT MANAGEMENT
  • STUDENT SOCIAL SKILLS AS PREVENTION
  • Caring Relationships: Connections with School
  • SCHOOL CONNECTIONS
  • CREATING COMMUNITIES OF CARE FOR ADOLESCENTS
  • GUIDELINES: Creating Caring Relationships
  • DEALING WITH DISCIPLINE PROBLEMS
  • Stopping Problems Quickly
  • GUIDELINES: Imposing Penalties
  • Bullying and Cyberbullying
  • VICTIMS
  • WHY DO STUDENTS BULLY?
  • BULLYING AND TEASING
  • CHANGING ATTRIBUTIONS
  • CYBERBULLYING
  • Special Problems with High School Students
  • GUIDELINES: Handling Potentially Explosive Situations
  • POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Is Zero Tolerance a Good Idea?
  • THE NEED FOR COMMUNICATION
  • Message Sent—Message Received
  • Diagnosis: Whose Problem Is It?
  • Counseling: The Student’s Problem
  • Confrontation and Assertive Discipline
  • “I” MESSAGES
  • ASSERTIVE DISCIPLINE
  • CONFRONTATIONS AND NEGOTIATIONS
  • Reaching Every Student: Peer Mediation and Restorative Justice
  • PEER MEDIATION
  • RESTORATIVE JUSTICE
  • THE 4 RS
  • Research on Management Approaches
  • INTEGRATING IDEAS
  • GUIDELINES: Family and Community Partnerships—Classroom Management
  • CONNECTING WITH FAMILIES ABOUT CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
  • DIVERSITY: CULTURALLY RESPONSIVE MANAGEMENT
  • SUMMARY
  • KEY TERMS
  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—BULLIES AND VICTIMS: WHAT WOULD THEY DO?
  • CHAPTER 14: TEACHING EVERY STUDENT

  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—REACHING AND TEACHING EVERY STUDENT: WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
  • OVERVIEW AND OBJECTIVES
  • RESEARCH ON TEACHING
  • Characteristics of Effective Teachers
  • CLARITY AND ORGANIZATION
  • WARMTH AND ENTHUSIASM
  • Knowledge for Teaching
  • Recent Research on Teaching
  • THE FIRST STEP: PLANNING
  • Research on Planning
  • Objectives for Learning
  • AN EXAMPLE OF STANDARDS: THE COMMON CORE
  • AN EXAMPLE OF STANDARDS FOR TEACHERS: TECHNOLOGY
  • CLASSROOMS: INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES
  • MAGER: START WITH THE SPECIFIC
  • GRONLUND: START WITH THE GENERAL
  • Flexible and Creative Plans—Using Taxonomies
  • THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN
  • THE AFFECTIVE DOMAIN
  • THE PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN
  • GUIDELINES: Using Instructional Objectives
  • Planning from a Constructivist Perspective
  • TEACHING APPROACHES
  • Direct Instruction
  • ROSENSHINE’S SIX TEACHING FUNCTIONS
  • ADVANCE ORGANIZERS
  • WHY DOES DIRECT INSTRUCTION WORK?
  • EVALUATING DIRECT INSTRUCTION
  • Seatwork and Homework
  • SEATWORK
  • GUIDELINES: Effective Direct Instruction
  • HOMEWORK
  • Questioning, Discussion, and Dialogue
  • POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Is Homework a Valuable Use of Time?
  • GUIDELINES: Family and Community Partnerships—Homework
  • KINDS OF QUESTIONS
  • FITTING THE QUESTIONS TO THE STUDENTS
  • RESPONDING TO STUDENT ANSWERS
  • GROUP DISCUSSION
  • Fitting Teaching to Your Goals
  • Putting It All Together: Understanding by Design
  • GUIDELINES: Productive Group Discussions
  • DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION AND ADAPTIVE TEACHING
  • Within-Class and Flexible Grouping
  • THE PROBLEMS WITH ABILITY GROUPING
  • FLEXIBLE GROUPING
  • GUIDELINES: Using Flexible Grouping
  • Adaptive Teaching
  • Reaching Every Student: Differentiated Instruction in Inclusive Classrooms
  • Technology and Differentiation
  • GUIDELINES: Teachers as Mentors
  • Mentoring Students as a Way of Differentiating Teaching
  • TEACHER EXPECTATIONS
  • Two Kinds of Expectation Effects
  • Sources of Expectations
  • Do Teachers’ Expectations Really Affect Students’ Achievement?
  • INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
  • TEACHER–STUDENT INTERACTIONS
  • Lessons for Teachers: Communicating Appropriate Expectations
  • GUIDELINES: Avoiding the Negative Effects of Teacher Expectations
  • SUMMARY
  • KEY TERMS
  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—REACHING AND TEACHING EVERY STUDENT: WHAT WOULD THEY DO?
  • CHAPTER 15: CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT, GRADING, AND STANDARDIZED TESTING

  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—GIVING MEANINGFUL GRADES: WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
  • OVERVIEW AND OBJECTIVES
  • BASICS OF ASSESSMENT
  • Measurement and Assessment
  • FORMATIVE AND SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
  • NORM-REFERENCED TEST INTERPRETATIONS
  • CRITERION-REFERENCED TEST INTERPRETATIONS
  • Assessing the Assessments: Reliability and Validity
  • RELIABILITY OF TEST SCORES
  • ERROR IN SCORES
  • CONFIDENCE INTERVAL
  • VALIDITY
  • ABSENCE OF BIAS
  • CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT: TESTING
  • Using the Tests from Textbooks
  • Objective Testing
  • USING MULTIPLE-CHOICE TESTS
  • WRITING MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS
  • Essay Testing
  • CONSTRUCTING ESSAY TESTS
  • GUIDELINES: Writing Objective Test Items
  • EVALUATING ESSAYS
  • THE VALUE OF TRADITIONAL TESTING
  • CRITICISMS OF TRADITIONAL TESTS
  • AUTHENTIC CLASSROOM ASSESSMENTS
  • Portfolios and Exhibitions
  • PORTFOLIOS
  • EXHIBITIONS
  • GUIDELINES: Creating Portfolios
  • Evaluating Portfolios and Performances
  • SCORING RUBRICS
  • GUIDELINES: Developing a Rubric
  • RELIABILITY, VALIDITY, GENERALIZABILITY
  • DIVERSITY AND BIAS IN PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT
  • Informal Assessments
  • JOURNALS
  • INVOLVING STUDENTS IN ASSESSMENTS
  • GRADING
  • Norm-Referenced versus Criterion-Referenced Grading
  • Effects of Grading on Students
  • THE VALUE OF FAILING?
  • RETENTION IN GRADE
  • Grades and Motivation
  • POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Should Children Be Held Back?
  • Beyond Grading: Communicating with Families
  • GUIDELINES: Using Any Grading System
  • STANDARDIZED TESTING
  • Types of Scores
  • MEASUREMENTS OF CENTRAL TENDENCY AND STANDARD DEVIATION
  • THE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION
  • PERCENTILE RANK SCORES
  • GRADE-EQUIVALENT SCORES
  • STANDARD SCORES
  • Interpreting Standardized Test Reports
  • DISCUSSING TEST RESULTS WITH FAMILIES
  • Accountability and High-Stakes Testing
  • GUIDELINES: Family and Community Partnerships—Conferences and Explaining Test Results
  • MAKING DECISIONS
  • WHAT DO TEACHERS THINK?
  • DOCUMENTED PROBLEMS WITH HIGH-STAKES TESTING
  • USING HIGH-STAKES TESTING WELL
  • GUIDELINES: Preparing Yourself and Your Students for Testing
  • Reaching Every Student: Helping Students with Disabilities Prepare for High-Stakes Tests
  • Current Directions: Value-Added and PARCC
  • VALUE-ADDED MEASURES
  • PARCC TESTS
  • Lessons for Teachers: Quality Assessment
  • SUMMARY
  • KEY TERMS
  • TEACHERS’ CASEBOOK—GIVING MEANINGFUL GRADES: WHAT WOULD THEY DO?
  •  

  • Licensure Appendix
  • Glossary
  • References